Published on www.philosophyoffreedom.com (http://philosophyoffreedom.org)

Chapter 10 Philosophy of Freedom Steiner

Revised 05/14/2009
Copyright © Tom Last 2009

Audio:
audio with text
[0]
All (18:01) 
P1
addition
Chapter 07 [0]   reality-based thinking
self  Chapter 08 [0]   ethics of self-knowledge  
 Chapter 06 [0]   independent thinking  
 mental picture 
 Chapter 09 [0]   ethical individualism
 Chapter 05 [0]   critical thinking concept  Chapter 10   ethics of authority
 Chapter 04 [0]   reactive thinking perception  Chapter 11 [0]   ethical naturalism
 Chapter 03 [0]   reflective thinking 
thought  Chapter 12 [0]   ethical norms
 Chapter 02 [0]   one-sided thinking desire  Chapter 13 [0]   ethics of self-gratification 
 Chapter 01 [0]   compelled thinking will  Chapter 14 [0]   group ethics



The Philosophy of Freedom

Chapter 10
Freedom Philosophy and Monism


[0]
Ethics of Authority: Conduct derived from a system of ethical principles that regulate life based on the authority of others, or the inner voice of conscious, or as our own idea.

Question: To what moral authority do we submit ourselves?

Comments - Questions:
Chapter 10 Discussion Forum [0]
Rita Stebbing [0]
Summary 1 [0]
Summary 2 [0]
Content [0]
Textbook [0]
Author's Addition [0]






Video:

[0]
Part 1
Moral Authority
[0]
[0]
Part 2
Moral Freedom
[0]
[0]
Principles of
Anthroposophy
[0]


top
[0]
top
[0]10.0 [0] Authoritative Moral Principles
The naïve man is ready to allow his basis for action to be dictated to him as commandments by any man whom he considers wiser or more powerful than himself, or whom he acknowledges for some other reason to be a power over him. In this way there arise, as moral principles, the authority of family, state, society, church and God.

10.1 [0] Mechanical Necessity
If the hypothetically assumed entity is conceived as in itself unthinking, acting according to purely mechanical laws, as materialism would have it, then it must also produce out of itself, by purely mechanical necessity, the human individual with all his characteristic features. I believe myself free; but in fact all my actions are nothing but the result of the material processes which underlie my physical and mental organization.

10.2 [0] Absolute Spiritual Being
Another possibility is that a man may picture the extra-human Absolute that lies behind the world of appearances as a spiritual being. In this case he will also seek the impulse for his actions in a corresponding spiritual force. To this kind of dualist the moral laws appear to be dictated by the Absolute, and all that man has to do is to use his intelligence to find out the decisions of the absolute being and then carry them out.

10.3 [0] Infer The True Reality
As in materialism, so also in one-sided spiritualism, in fact in any kind of metaphysical realism inferring but not experiencing something extra-human as the true reality, freedom is out of the question.

10.4 [0] Necessity Of Imposed Principles
Metaphysical as well as naïve realism, consistently followed out, must deny freedom for one and the same reason: they both see man as doing no more than putting into effect, or carrying out, principles forced (imposed) upon him by necessity.

10.5 [0] Accept Moral Principle
Whoever is incapable of producing moral ideas through intuition must accept them from others.

10.6 [0] Obey External Compulsion
If anyone asserts that the action of a fellow man is done unfreely, then he must identify the thing or the person or the institution within the perceptible world, that has caused the person to act.

10.7 [0] Partly Free
According to the monistic view, then, man's action is partly unfree, partly free. He finds himself to be unfree in the world of percepts, and he realizes within himself the free spirit.

10.8 [0] Higher Thoughts
The moral laws which the metaphysician who works by mere inference must regard as issuing from a higher power, are, for the adherent of monism, thoughts of men.

10.9 [0] Developing Being
Monism sees in man a developing being, and asks whether, in the course of this development, the stage of the free spirit can be reached.

10.10 [0] Discover Self
Monism knows that Nature does not send man forth from her arms ready made as a free spirit, but that she leads him up to a certain stage, from which he continues to develop still as an unfree being, until he comes to the point where he finds his own self.

10.11 [0] Free Moral World Conception
Monism frees the truly moral world conception both from the mundane fetters of naïve moral maxims and from the transcendental moral maxims of the speculative metaphysician.

10.12 [0] Being Free Is Morality
Morality is for the monist a specifically human quality, and spiritual freedom the human way of being moral.



top
[0]
top
[0]
top
[0]top [0]
top
[0]
top
[0]
top
[0]
top
[0]
top
[0]top [0]
top
[0]
top
[0]
top
[0]
top
[0]
top
[0]top [0]