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Chapter 7 Philosophy of Freedom Steiner

Revised 07/01/2010
Copyright © Tom Last 2009-10

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Chapter 08 [0]   ethics of self-knowledge  
 Chapter 06 [0]   independent thinking  
 mental picture 
 Chapter 09 [0]   ethical individualism
 Chapter 05 [0]   critical thinking concept  Chapter 10 [0]   ethics of authority
 Chapter 04 [0]   reactive thinking perception  Chapter 11 [0]   ethical naturalism
 Chapter 03 [0]   reflective thinking 
thought  Chapter 12 [0]   ethical norms
 Chapter 02 [0]   one-sided thinking desire  Chapter 13 [0]   ethics of self-gratification 
 Chapter 01 [0]   compelled thinking will  Chapter 14 [0]   group ethics


The Philosophy of Freedom

Chapter 7
Are There Limits To Cognition?


Cognitive Thinking: It is due, as we have seen, to our organization that the full, complete reality, including our own selves as subjects, appears at first as a duality. Cognition overcomes this duality by fusing the two elements of reality, the perception and the concept gained by thinking, into the complete thing.

Question: How do we find reality?

The deepening of knowledge depends on the powers of intuition which express themselves in thinking. -author's addition [0] 

Thought Training Exercise:
PTIT exercise #7  Love Of Factuality And Objectivity [0].
Expanding our vision is of far more importance than merely theorizing about what extends beyond the things of the senses into the spiritual.
To bring ourselves to a point at which logical reasons themselves possess a real significance for us, we must have learned to love logic itself. Only when we have learned to love factuality and objectivity will logical reason be decisive for us. We should gradually learn to think objectively, not allowing ourselves to be swayed by our preference for this or that thought. Only then will our vision broaden in the sense that we do not merely follow the mental ruts of others but in such a way that the reality of the things themselves will teach us to think correctly.


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[0]7.0 [0] Cognitive Thinking
It is due, as we have seen, to our organization that the full, complete reality, including our own selves as subjects, appears at first as a duality. Cognition overcomes this duality by fusing the two elements of reality, the percept and the concept gained by thinking, into the complete thing.

7.1 [0] Assumed World Principle and Experience
It is quite natural that a dualistic thinker should be unable to find the connection between the world principle which he hypothetically assumes and the things given in experience.

7.2 [0] Egohoods Questions and Answers
It is not the world which sets us the questions, but we ourselves. Only when the Egohood has taken the two elements of reality which are indivisibly united in the world and has combined them also for itself, is cognitive satisfaction attained

7.3 [0] Reconcile Familiar Percepts and Concepts
Our cognition is concerned with questions which arise for us through the fact that a sphere of percepts, conditioned by place, time, and our subjective organization, is confronted by a sphere of concepts pointing to the totality of the universe. My task consists in reconciling these two spheres, with both of which I am well acquainted.

7.4 [0] Ideal Reference of Perception to Objective Reality
We can obtain only conceptual representatives of the objectively real.

7.5 [0] Real Principles in addition to Ideal Principles
The ideal principles which thinking discovers seem too airy for the dualist, and he seeks, in addition, real principles with which to support them.

7.6 [0] Real Evidence of Senses in addition to Ideal Evidence
The naïve person demands the real evidence of his senses in addition to the ideal evidence of his thinking.

7.7 [0] Vanishing Perceptions and Ideal Entities
Its realities arise and perish, while what it regards as unreal, in contrast with the real, persists. Hence naïve realism is compelled to acknowledge, in addition to percepts, the existence of something ideal. It must admit entities which cannot be perceived by the senses.

7.8 [0] Perceptible Reality and Imperceptible Reality
Metaphysical realism constructs, in addition to the perceptible reality, an imperceptible reality which it conceives on the analogy of the perceptible one.

7.9 [0] Sum of Perceptions and Laws of Nature
If we reject the untenable part of metaphysical realism, the world presents itself to us as the sum of percepts and their conceptual (ideal) relationships. Monism combines one-sided realism with idealism into a higher unity.

7.10 [0] Separation and Reunion of “I” into World Continuum
Bridging over the antithesis can take place only in the quite specific way that is characteristic of the particular human subject. As soon as the I, which is separated from the world in the act of perceiving, fits itself back into the world continuum through thoughtful contemplation, all further questioning ceases, having been but a consequence of the separation.

7.11 [0]
Sum of Effects and Underlying Causes
This is an inference from a sum of effects to the character of the underlying causes. We believe that we can understand the situation well enough from a sufficiently large number of instances to know how the inferred causes will behave in other instances. Such an inference is called an inductive inference.

7.12 [0] Subjective and Objective World Continuum
Through considerations of the process of cognition he is convinced of the existence of an objectively real world continuum, over and above the "subjective" world continuum which is cognizable through percepts and concepts. The nature of this reality he thinks he can determine by inductive inferences from his percepts.



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