Introduction To Duality and Mind-Body Debate

Submitted by Tom Last on Sun, 10/26/2008 - 9:48pm.

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This edited BBC video presents some history on the mind-body debate found in Chapter 2 of The Philosophy of Freedom; The Fundamental Urge For Knowledge. How can a brain made of matter think? How can a nonmaterial mind influence a material body?

Chapter 2 The Fundamental Urge For Knowledge

Materialistic Conception

[5] Materialism can never provide a satisfactory explanation of the world. For every attempt at an explanation must begin with one’s formation of thoughts about the phenomena of the world. Consequently, Materialism takes its start with the thought of Matter or material processes. In so doing, it is immediately confronted by two different kinds of facts: the material world and the thoughts about it.

Materialist’s seek an explanation of thoughts by regarding them as purely material processes. They believe that thinking takes place in the brain, in much the same way that digestion takes place in the animal organs. Just as they attribute mechanical and organic processes to Matter, so they credit Matter, under certain conditions, with the capacity to think. They overlook that all they have done is shift the problem from one place to another. Materialists ascribe the power of thinking to matter instead of to themselves. And this brings them back to their starting point. How does Matter manage to think about its own nature? Why is it not simply satisfied with itself and content just to exist?

The Materialist’s have turned their attention away from the definite subject, our own I, and occupy themselves with something vague and indefinite. Here the same problem comes up again. The materialistic view cannot solve the problem; it can only shift it from one place to another.

Spiritualistic Theory
[6] And what about Spiritualistic theory? The Spiritualists denies Matter any independent existence and regard it only as a product of Spirit.

But when they try to apply this theory to solve the riddle of their own human nature, they are driven into a corner. Confronting the "I" or Ego, which can be placed on the side of Spirit, there stands directly the world of the senses. No spiritual approach to it seems possible. Only by means of material processes can it be perceived and experienced by the "I". As long as it regards its own nature as exclusively spiritual, the “I” cannot find such material processes within itself. Within all that it achieves spiritually by its own effort, no trace of the sense-perceptible world is to be found. It is as if the "I" has to admit that the world is a closed book to it unless it establishes a non-spiritual relationship to the world.

Similarly, when it comes to action, we have to translate our intentions into realities with the help of material things and forces. We are, therefore, referred back to the outer world.