Links to Leading Ideas in the Philosophy of Freedom (chapter 1-7)

Submitted by Tom Last on Wed, 09/20/2006 - 10:47am.

Links to Leading Ideas in The Philosophy of Freedom  Part I (chapter 1-7)    Go to chapter 8-14

 Chapter  1  23  4 56  7
 World OutlookOccultismOccultismTranscendentalism
MysticismMysticism EmpiricismEmpiricismVoluntarismVoluntarismLogicismLogicismGnosisGnosis

Human Action
Desire For
Thinking As 
Instrument Of
The World As
The Act of Knowing
The World

Are Their Limits
To Cognition?

 12 Views of Freedom
Question of freedom: Are we free or are we determined by hidden unconscious motives?
 12 Views of our Thirst for Knowledge
The history of our spiritual life is a continuing search for the unity between ourselves and the world.
A vain struggle to unify "I" and world,.. or mind (spirit) and matter.
 12 Views of Reflection
Purpose of reflection is to
form concepts of an event.
Thinking as an object of observation is different from
other objects.
 12 Views of Reaction
Thinking reacts to observation, an ideal element is added, and they are considered as belonging together. When the object disappears from observation, only the ideal counterpart remains. This is the concept.
 12 Views of Knowing
Learn indirectly about the nature of things by drawing conclusions from their behavior.
12 Views of
Individual Being
The forces which are at work inside my body are the same as those which exist outside. Therefore I really am the things; not, "I" in so far as I am a percept of myself as subject, but "I" in so far as I am a part of the universal world process.
 12 Views of Cognition
Cognition overcomes duality by fusing the two elements of reality, the percept and the concept gained by thinking, into the complete thing. 

Freedom of Indifferent Choice

Materialistic Conception
Confronted by two different sets of facts: the material world, and the thoughts about it. Thoughts of matter or material processes.
of Thinking
Exceptional state, observe thinking like we would for the normal study
of anything else. 
Observation evokes thinking, which links separate experiences according to cause and effect. 
Awakened State of Thinking
If our experience were "mental pictures", then our life would be a dream, and the true state of affairs would be like waking.
Subjective Percepts
The most difficult to drive from the field are the so-called physiological proofs of the subjectivity of our percepts.
Hypothetical World Principle
Connect assumed world principle and experience.
 Choice of action always determined by a definite reason   Ascribes the power of thinking to matter instead of to himself. Turns attention away from his own "I".  Everyday thinking: Observe table and carry out thinking but do not observe thinking.Observation: Separate life experiences.Interest in the real soul which lies behind the MP's.  A regular and systematic change in an object is perceived by us as a process of motion.Everything needed to explain world phenomenon is in world itself   

Freedom of choice
Denies matter and considers it a product of mind.
of Concept
Learn nothing about myself through knowing the concepts which correspond to an event. 
Conceptual Reference
Thinking refers a concept to an object. 
 Assert results of Thinking
Any assertion about anything is done with the help of thinking.
Thought System
An element of my thought system, a definite intuition, a concept, connects itself with the percept.
Power of Egohood
Egohood sets questions, discover answers with power within 
  Choice determined by desireConsiders nature of "I" exclusively spiritual. World is a closed book to it. Feeling is kindled by object (passive, learn about my personality) Observation:
Direct our thinking upon our observation, we have consciousness of objects; because we direct it upon ourselves, we have consciousness of ourselves, or self-consciousness.
The naive accept life as it is, and regard things as real according to first impression.Mental Picture:
 Intuition related to a particular percept.
Inability to answer our questions would mean ques. unclear 

Free to act from necessity of own nature 
Extreme Spiritualism
(absolute idealism)
Accomplishes a magnificent thought-picture of world w/o any content of experience.
Thinking Contemplation
of Object
Attention solely upon object and not on thinking.
Conceptual Relationships Thinking establishes relationships between elements.
World Produces Thinking
Set the plant before yourself. It connects itself, in your mind, with a definite concept.
Representation of Real Object
Real objects can be represented to us by mental pictures.

Reconcile Familiar Spheres
 Reconcile our sphere percepts with our sphere of concepts.

Action determined by an external cause  Attempts to derive elaborate conceptual structure of the world from the "I". Cannot argue away outer world of matter. When we see and recognize a table our focus is on the table and not our thinking personality.  Obervation
(pure unthinking observation):
 sensation, pleasure-pain
The world is not complete and ready-made without thinking. Mental Picture:
 Individualized concept with reference to percept.
Limits overcome by progress of perception and thinking  


Free of external impulses
One-sided Idealism
Work of "I" in conceptual elaboration of world of ideas.
Thinking Contemplation
of Thinking
Observe my past thinking, follow thinking process of another, or assume imaginary process.
Picture Correction
Correct picture of reality with each extension of percepts.
 Process of Becoming
Things are in a continual process of development.
Total experience is sum of mental pictures formed.
Ideal Reference The concept that refers the subjective reality (percept) to the objective reality (reality independent of the subject). 
  Action determined by necessity of characterological disposition. Doesn't penetrate through world of ideas to spiritual world. Remains fixed within world of ideas.  Reflect on thinking:
Cannot observe present thinking, only past thinking. 
Percepts are sensations, feeling, conscious appearance of thinking.
 The momentary appearance of a thing is not the thing. Unthinking traveler and the abstract scholar can't form mental pictures.Obtain a conceptual representative of the objectively real 

Action resulting from a conscious motive
World a Product of Thinking
Material processes produced by thinking of "I" and vice versa.
Content of Concepts
Know thinking immediately and intimately 
-Qualitative Determinations
Percept-picture determined by place of observation, and bodily - mental
Indivisible Existence of Concept
Concept indivisibly bound up with the thing.
Subjective Representative of Reality
Reality shows itself to us as percept and concept; the mental picture is the subjective representative of reality.
Real Principles
Real principles to confirm ideal principles.
  Action determined by knowledge of the reason.Mind-matter paradox.
Baron Münchhausen stories depict impossibilities.
Can know other observations only indirectly. Observation:
Percept-picture, our picture of the world. 
Receive the concept at the same time as, and united with, the percept. (as with ball and parabola)   Objective Personality:
The totality of all that is objective is given in percept, concept and mental picture.
Real connections between the objects that support the conceptual connections.

Free when controlled by reason
Indivisible Unity
Third form of monism is the one which finds even in the simplest entity (the atom) both matter and spirit already united.
Content of Thoughts

Know what guides me in my linking of thoughts. Guided by content of my thoughts; not by material processes in brain.  
Conscious Mind
Nothing exists apart from consciousness. If I strip away all that is perceptible from an object then nothing will remain.
Separate Sections of World
Necessary to isolate certain sections of the world and to consider them by themselves.
Relate Percept to Ego
(pleasure or displeasure)
We relate 
percept and concept also to our subjectivity, our individual Ego. The expression of this individual relationship is feeling.
Real Evidence of Senses
Real evidence of senses in addition to ideal evidence of thinking.
  Reason determined by rational decision which emerges with necessity.Question which originated in our consciousness shifted away to another place. How does indivisible unity manifest in two-fold manner?  
Observing material processes in brain is irrelevant. 
Subjective percept pictures, they exist only through my act of perception.
can grasp only single concepts out of a connected conceptual system.
 We are not satisfied merely to refer the percept, by means of thinking, to the concept. 

Free to do as one wills
We contrast our "I" with world
We meet with the basic and primary opposition first in our own consciousness.
Content of my Thinking Activity
In that I think,-I give to my existence the precisely determined, self-contained content of my thinking activity.
Mental Picture:
When the tree disappears from field of vision, self-perception reveals an after-effect in my consciousness, a MP.
Integrate into the world process the percepts I have made of myself.
Experience self-feeling with self-knowledge
  We live as individual beings whose existence is not limited to the conceptual relations between us and the rest of the world, but who have besides this a special value for ourselves.
Ideal Entities
In addition to percepts is the existence of ideal entities that cannot be perceived by senses.
  Action determined by the strongest motive. Living in the midst of nature, we are strangers to her. But she is also within all. Absolutely certain
about my thinking.
Uncertain of other things because they are independent from me.
Conscious of the percept-picture and also of my personality which confronts the percept.
 Self-perception reveals a number of qualities which I combine into my personality as a whole. Life of feeling has richer meaning only for my individual self. The tulip I see is real today; in a year it will have vanished into nothingness. What persists is the species tulip.

Free Unconditioned volition, an absolute beginning 
We Belong to Nature
We have estranged ourselves from Nature, yet we feel we are in Nature and belong to her.
Thinking Process
When thinking about thinking we remain within thinking.
Mental Picture:
Change in ourselves caused by unknown thing-in-itself 
We are the
All-One Being
In so far as we sense and feel (and also perceive), we are single beings; in so far as we think, we are the all-one being that pervades everything.
Reach Feelings into Ideal
A true individuality will be the one who reaches up with his feelings to the farthest possible extent into the region of the ideal.
Imperceptible Reality
In addition to the perceptible reality is an imperceptible reality. 
  Action determined by an internal and invisible cause. Nature's life pulsates also in us.  When thinking about other observed objects we transcend the object. How can our thinking be related to the object?   Observation:
Perceive mental picture within my inner world.
That thinking reaches out beyond our separate existence gives rise to the desire for knowledgeWe oscillation between living with the universal world process and being our own individual selves. Imperceptible forces produce the real world, and are the things that endure. 

Free when reason for action known
Know Nature Within 
We can find Nature outside us only if we have first learned to know her within us.
Seek qualities of nature within us to restore connection.
Activity of Thinking
Create-then know.
We think, then observe what we have done and gain knowledge of it. We create what does not yet exist.
Mental Picture:
The external object has been entirely lost on the way to the brain and through the brain to the soul. 
Activities of the Body
In the activities of the body he feels an immediate reality -- the thing-in-itself in the concrete.
Making mental pictures
Making mental pictures gives our conceptual life at once an individual stamp.
Laws of Nature
Monism: Sum of percepts and their conceptual (ideal) relationships.
  The reason was determined by the thinking activity. Dualism considers the mind a spiritual entity alien to nature and then attempts somehow to hitch it on to Nature.Know-then create. By gaining knowledge of nature first, we can create the same thing a second time. Obervation: 
Physics, physiology, and psychology teach that a percept is what our organization transmits to us.
Find in the activity of the body the "objectivity" of the will. This special determination results from our stand-point in the world, from our range of percepts.A law of nature is the conceptual expression of the connection between certain percepts.

Free when action springs from the heart
Here is something which is more than 'I'
We must reach a point where we can say to ourselves, "Here we are no longer merely 'I', here is something which is more than 'I'."
Thinking Subsists by Means of Itself Thinking is supported by itself and by nothing else.The question is, whether we can grasp anything else through it. 
Soul Qualities Transferred to External Object
What the naive regard as existing outside him is really a product of the soul.
Corresponding Intuition
Person without intuition observe only unconnected perceptual fragments. Intuitions corresponding to the things places things in context of whole.
Intensity of Feelings
Each of us combines special feelings, and these in the most varying degrees of intensity, with his percepts.
Reunion of "I" and World
The “I”, separated from the world continuum in the act of perception, puts itself back into the context of the world as a whole through thinking.
  Heart does not create motives but allows them to enter. Investigation of our own being must give us the answer to the riddle.  I should not regard my own thinking from any point of view other than my own. Observation: 
What is produced in the soul by means of the brain process is transferred by the soul to a body in the external world.
Separate parts becomes combined, bit by bit, through the coherent, unified world of our intuitions. Perception separates the “I” from the world in a way depending on its organization. Thinking restores the connection in a form specific for that being.  

Love of Others
Pity enters heart when a mental picture of someone who arouses pity appears in my consciousness.
Clear Description of Experience
Concerned with description of what every one of us experiences in his own consciousness and a brief elucidation of facts.

Impartial Consideration of Thinking
Before anything else can be understood, thinking must be understood.
Mental Picture:
Perceived world is my mental picture. 
Ideal Connections of Percepts
Thinking alone links all these percepts to one another and shows them to us in their mutual relationship.
Education of the Life of Feeling
Knowledge of things will go hand in hand with the development and education of the life of feeling.
Inductive Inference
Infer from a large number of perceptual facts the character of the thing-in-itself which underlies these facts 
 Love is determined by forming an idealistic mental picture.  Many who have read thus far will not find my discussion "scientific", as this term is used today.  Should first and foremost trouble yourself about the correctness of your principles before turning to the objects which you seek to understand. Observation:
External percept is a mental picture. This would be a
tissue of mental pictures which, as such, cannot act on one another.
 Connecting medium which weaves through all these spatially and temporally separated percepts is thinking.  Only relatively true, since it is subject to correction by further instances.

Seeing the Good
Love opens our eyes to the good qualities of the loved one.
Record Facts w/o Interpretation
 Not concerned with the way in which science, so far, has interpreted consciousness, but with the way in which we experience it in every moment of our lives.
Application of Thinking
Thinking is a fact. I can, at most, be in doubt as to whether thinking is correctly applied.
Mental Picture:
Modification of real objective organism.
Objective Percept present in Field of Vision.
What appears for our perception to be external to the percept of myself as subject is for us "objective".
Concrete Life of Concepts
Feeling is the means whereby, in the first instance, concepts gain concrete life.
Real World Continuum
Objective real world continuum exists, over and above the "subjective" world continuum.
 Love is determined by noticing good qualities.  I have made no attempt to use the various psychology and philosophy expressions, as the ordinary consciousness is unaware of the sharp distinctions made by the sciences.To show how far the application of thinking to the world is right or wrong, is precisely the task of this book. Observation: 
Only my real eye and my real hand could have the mental pictures "sun"and "earth."
  The mental picture is, therefore, a subjective percept, in contrast with the objective percept which occurs when the object is present in the field of vision. Nature of this reality he thinks he can determine by inductive inferences.