Glossary


Dynamism

But there can be persons who do not rise to the level of the Monads; they cannot concede that existence is made up of being with the most varied conceptual powers, but at the same time they are not content to allow reality only to external phenomena; they hold that “forces‿ are dominant everywhere. If, for example, a stone falls to the ground, they say, “That is gravitation!‿ When a magnet attracts bits of iron, they say: “That is magnetic force!‿ They are not content with saying simply, “There is the magnet,‿ but they say, “The magnet presupposes that supersensibly, invisibly, a magnetic force is present, extending in all directions.‿ A world-outlook of this kind—which looks everywhere for forces behind phenomena—can be called Dynamism.

Then one may say: “No, to believe in ‘forces’ is superstition‿—an example of this is Frits Mauthner’s Critique of Language, where you find a detailed argument to this effect. It amounts to taking your stand on the reality of the things around us. Thus by the path of Spiritism we come through Monadism and Dynamism to Realism again.